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Applied Marine Ecology

Semester 2

Marine pollution and anthropogenic impacts: vulnerability and pollution of marine ecosystems, classification and sources of marine pollution (organic, chemical, biological, light, acoustic, thermal pollution, exploitation of resources and energy from the sea, introduction of non-native species). Eutrophication, mucilage and toxic algae: trophic status indicators and models, strategies for control and for the study of toxic algae. Pollution due to hydrocarbons: Ecological effects of oil spills, strategies to contain and recover the oil spill. Plastic and microplastic impact on marine life and ecosystems. Impact of pharmaceuticals and personal care products: sources and potential effects on organisms. Microfouling and macrofouling: (eco-compatible) strategies for biofouling control. The impact of trawling on marine habitats: methods and tools for studying the impact of trawling, direct and indirect environmental effects of trawling, by catch and ghost fishing. The impact of intensive aquaculture: ecological effects of mariculture and strategies for studying and mitigate the impacts. The introduction of non-native species: definition and sources of alien species, the effects of the invasion of alien species and strategies to avoid the impact. Frauds associated with marine food: the case of the Pangasius and Halibut. Global changes and multiple stressors. Criteria for assessing the quality of the marine environment: biological indicators and biotic indexes, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive.
Case studies presented during the include: pollution in the Mediterranean Sea, eutrophication and mucilage in the Adriatic Sea, the Fukushima disaster, the incidents of large tankers and the case of Agip Abruzzo and Deepwater Horizon, invasion of alien species in Black Sea, impact of fish farms in the Mediterranean, the impact of sunscreens on coral reefs.